Evergreen coniferous tree to 25 m (80 ft) tall and 50 cm (20 in) diameter. Bark red-brown, with large flat scaly plates. Twigs thin, rough, gray. Buds terminal, cylindrical, with numerous scales and yellowish-white hairs. Leaves needle-like, usually two but sometimes three in a bundle, 7-11 cm (2.8-4.3 in) long, dark bluish-green. Cones small, narrowly egg-shaped, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) long with thin scales and short prickles, brown, opening at maturity but remaining attached for several months.
Distribution: Southern New York south to Florida and southwest to Oklahoma and Texas.
Habitat: Rocky slopes of the hills and mountains of the eastern part of the state, often dominant on south-facing slopes.
NWI status: none
Comment: Shortleaf pine is the state tree of Arkansas. An important timber tree, marketed with several other species as "southern yellow pine". Pinus is the ancient Latin name for the pines; echinata (prickly) may refer to the short stiff needles.
Distribution in Oklahoma:
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Last update: 9/15/99
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