Pinus echinata P. Mill.

  • Family: Pinaceae (pines)
  • Common name: shortleaf pine

    Evergreen coniferous tree to 25 m (80 ft) tall and 50 cm (20 in) diameter. Bark red-brown, with large flat scaly plates. Twigs thin, rough, gray. Buds terminal, cylindrical, with numerous scales and yellowish-white hairs. Leaves needle-like, usually two but sometimes three in a bundle, 7-11 cm (2.8-4.3 in) long, dark bluish-green. Cones small, narrowly egg-shaped, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) long with thin scales and short prickles, brown, opening at maturity but remaining attached for several months.

    Distribution: Southern New York south to Florida and southwest to Oklahoma and Texas.
    Habitat: Rocky slopes of the hills and mountains of the eastern part of the state, often dominant on south-facing slopes.
    NWI status: none
    Comment: Shortleaf pine is the state tree of Arkansas. An important timber tree, marketed with several other species as "southern yellow pine". Pinus is the ancient Latin name for the pines; echinata (prickly) may refer to the short stiff needles.

    Distribution in Oklahoma:

    Last update: 9/15/99
    Go to Oklahoma Biological Survey Home Page